电影《先知》:随机论还是决定论的困扰

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很意外,百无聊赖中又看到尼古拉斯·凯奇的新影片——《先知》Knowing(预知/末日预言/地球毁灭密码/预难大逃亡)。

尼古拉斯·凯奇是我唯一的成系列观看其电影作品的国外电影演员,影片中的尼古拉斯·凯奇充满一种迷人的忧郁,但又不失男人的洒脱。尽管尼古拉斯·凯奇更多是因为《国家宝藏》、《曼谷杀手》、《战争之王》、《风语者》这样的 商业娱乐片出名,不过作为我个人,喜欢的还是《居家男人》、《气象先生》、《预见未来》这样的,具有某种对无解世界的挖掘、显示出某种对生活的思考等的影片,特别是这些影片往往带有一些哲理上的思考等。

尼古拉斯·凯奇的新影片——《先知》Knowing,即是这样一种具有哲学味道的电影。电影《先知》Knowing可以说是一部宗教题材的影片,也可以是某种普遍意义上的哲学影片,当然,你也可以认为是科幻片或者恐怖片。不过,我倒是对其中表达的随机论与决定论,很感兴趣。

影片中的尼古拉斯·凯奇是一个研究天体物理学的大学老师,在给学生上课的时候就陷入随机论还是决定论的难解。作为研究天体物理学老师,尼古拉斯·凯奇向学生讲解太阳的物质组成、温度、以及天体运行等客观的科学事实。作为科学事实,当然一切看来都是有章可循、一环套一环,有因又有果。这些事情总是有一些前置条件,决定后面的东西,不过,尼古拉斯·凯奇却是想到了火灾中丧生的妻子。

尼古拉斯·凯奇很困扰,妻子在火灾中丧生,是什么导致了这一原因,火灾为什么发生在了自己妻子的身上?按照自己所研究的领域,发生这一事情肯定是有原因、有征兆,如果有征兆,那么自己是否可以阻止这一切。对于这一问题,尼古拉斯·凯奇不能求解,开始陷入一切都是随机偶然的这一虚空境地。

所谓随机论指的是,事物既可以以这样的形式出现,也可以以那样的形式的出现,两者都是合理的,两者的交替出现并没有什么理据,只是一种纯粹的随机现象。

不过,在得到一份50年前就已经书写好的一张纸上,尼古拉斯·凯奇从上面的数字中看出,一切的灾难其实早已注定,包括让自己妻子丧生的那场大火。这看起来是冥冥之中有一种力量,我们现在所遇到的一切,其实都是早已安排好的。尼古拉斯·凯奇感觉到,这些貌似随机、充满偶然的东西,其实是早已安排好的。尼古拉斯·凯奇认为,既然这一切变得有章可循,那么,找出导致灾难发生的源头,是不是就可以阻止这个灾难。

决定论一般指因果决定论,也称为物理决定论或科学决定论,是一种认为自然界普遍存在因果法则的学说,即因果法则存在于一切事物之中。它的基本观点是:事物的运动是因果规律性的体现,因果必然性支配着宇宙中的一切,世界上不存在绝对偶然性的东西,宇宙间的一切事物都有严格的因果关系可循,都被一定的因果定律所制约和统治着。在决定论看来,事物都有一个促使它发生的原因,若没有原因什么事情也不会发生,而相同的原因总会产生相同的结果。因此,任何事物都是事先像剧本一样被编制好了,它们只能以唯一一种方式出现。

尼古拉斯·凯奇对不能够阻止导致妻子死去的火灾遗憾,对于将要发生的、可能影响到自己亲人的灾难,便开始全力以赴,以期挽救他的亲人。越来越多的征兆显示,2009年的10月19日,将是世界末日。

经过不懈的能力,尼古拉斯·凯奇感觉到答案就在眼前,不过才发现这一切都无能为力。自己担心的儿子,算是被上帝的使者作为优秀的人类拯救了,而自己,以及自己的父亲母亲妹妹,包括全世界更多的人,注定要成为这一灾难的弃儿。

强大的太阳火焰风,无疑是客观的,可以使用科学研究来感知和测算,但是人类对此却无能为力。创造了耀眼文明的人类,在这个灾难面前,一切轰然倒塌,尼古拉斯·凯奇和家人,以及其他更多的人,归于消失。

地球算是毁灭了,那些鲜活的生命瞬间消失。影片《先知》Knowing的结尾,一个新的伊甸园呈现了出来,新的亚当和夏娃在如梦境般美丽的田地里雀跃,诱人的苹果树就在前方,亚当和夏娃满心欢喜……

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